# PLT CCSS Alignment Descriptions

Project Lemon Tree Activities have been aligned to elementary and secondary Common Core State Standards (“CCSS”). CCSS for elementary (K-2nd and 3rd-5th grades) includes Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening and Mathematics. CCSS for secondary (6th-12th grades) includes Literacy, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Science and Technical. This curriculum system is designed to be accessible to students at various levels of skills, abilities and English Language Proficiency. For more information, links have been provided as an additional resource:

**Elementary (K-2)**

**A. English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Foundational Skills » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RF/2/**)

**Print Concepts**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.1

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

**Phonological Awareness**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.2

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

**Phonics and Word Recognition**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.3

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.2.3

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

**Fluency**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.4

Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.4

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.2.4

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**B. English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Informational Texts » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/2/**)

**Key Ideas and Details**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.1

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.2

With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.3

With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.1

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.2

Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.3

Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas or pieces of information in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.1

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.3

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

**Craft and Structure**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.4

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.5

Identify the front cover, back cover and title page of a book.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.6

Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.4

Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.5

Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.6

Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.5

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.6

Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain or describe.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.K.7

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing or idea in the text an illustration depicts).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.7

Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.1.8

Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.2.7

Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

**C. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/2/**)

**Text Types and Purposes**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.1

Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.2

Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.3

Use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.1

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion and provide some sense of closure.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.2

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic and provide some sense of closure.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.3

Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.1

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.2

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.3

Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

**Production and Distribution of Writing**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.5

With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.6

With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.5

With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.6

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.5

With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.6

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.7

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.K.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.7

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.1.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.7

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.2.8

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

**D. English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/2/**)

**Comprehension and Collaboration**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.2

Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.3

Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information or clarify something that is not understood.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.2

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.3

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.2

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.3

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.4

Describe familiar people, places, things and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.5

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.K.6

Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.4

Describe people, places, things and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.5

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.2.4

Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

**E. Mathematics Standards » Operations & Algebraic Thinking » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/OA/**)

**Grade K:** **Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.1

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions or equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.2

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

**Grade 1:** **Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.A.1

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.A.2

Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**Grade 1:** **Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.B.3

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.

**Grade 2: Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.A.1

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1

**Grade 2: Add and subtract within 20.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.B.2

Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.

**F. Mathematics Standards » Measurement & Data » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/MD/**)

**Grade K:** **Describe and compare measurable attributes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.1

Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.A.2

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/”less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

**Grade K:** **Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.MD.B.3

Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

**Grade 1:** **Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.A.1

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.A.2

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

**Grade 1:** **Represent and interpret data.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4

Organize, represent and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

**Grade 2:** **Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks and measuring tapes.

**Grade 2:** **Relate addition and subtraction to length.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.B.5

Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.B.6

Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

**Grade 2:** **Represent and interpret data.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.9

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.10

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

**G. Mathematics Standards » Geometry » Grades K-2** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/G**/)

**Grade K:** **Identify and describe shapes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.A.1

Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind and next to.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.A.2

Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

**Grade K:** **Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.4

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/”corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.5

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

**Grade 1:** **Reason with shapes and their attributes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.1

Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.

**Grade 2: Reason with shapes and their attributes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.G.A.1

Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.1 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

**Elementary/Pre-Secondary (3-5)**

**A. English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Foundational Skills » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RF/5/**)

**Phonics and Word Recognition**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.3-5.3

Know and apply [appropriate] grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

**Fluency**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.3-5.4

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**B. English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Informational Texts » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RI/2/**)

**Key Ideas and Details**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.3-5.3

Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas or concepts in a historical, scientific or technical text based on specific information in the text.

**Craft and Structure**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.3-5.4

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade [3 through 5 topic or subject areas].

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.3-5.6

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.3-5.7

Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

**C. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/5/**)

**Text Types and Purposes**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.1

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

**Production and Distribution of Writing**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.5

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 here.)

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.6

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.7

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3-5.8

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

**D. English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/5/**)

**Comprehension and Collaboration**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3-5.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3-5.2

Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.5.4

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.5.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

**E. Mathematics Standards » Measurement & Data » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/MD/**)

**Grade 3: Represent and interpret data.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.3

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.4

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units — whole numbers, halves or quarters.

**Grade 3:** **Understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.5

Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.6

Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7

Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

**Grade 3: Recognize perimeter.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.D.8

Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

**Grade 4: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.2

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

**Grade 4: Understand concepts of angle and measure angles.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.C.5

Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.C.6

Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

**Grade 5: Understand concepts of volume.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.MD.C.3

Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.MD.C.4

Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.MD.C.5

Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.

**F. Mathematics Standards » Geometry » Grades 3-5** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/G/**)

**Grade 3: Reason with shapes and their attributes.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.G.A.2

Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

**Grade 4: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.G.A.1

Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

**Grade 5: Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.G.A.2

Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.

**Secondary (6-12)**

**A. English Language Arts Standards » Science & Technical Subjects » Grades 6-8** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/6-8/**)

**Key Ideas and Details:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.3

Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements or performing technical tasks.

**Craft and Structure:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.6

Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure or discussing an experiment in a text.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.7

Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph or table).

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.9

Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

**B. English Language Arts Standards » Science & Technical Subjects » Grades 9-10** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/9-10/**)

**Key Ideas and Details:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.3

Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.

**Craft and Structure:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.6

Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.7

Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.9

Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.

**C. English Language Arts Standards » Science & Technical Subjects » Grades 11-12** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RST/11-12/**)

**Key Ideas and Details:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.3

Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.

**Craft and Structure:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.6

Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.9

Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

**D. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grades 6-8** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/WHST/6-8/**)

**Text Types and Purposes:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments or technical processes.

**Production and Distribution of Writing:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.5

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.7

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.8

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

**E. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grades 9-10** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/WHST/9-10/**)

**Text Types and Purposes:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

**Production and Distribution of Writing:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

**F. English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grades 11-12** (**http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/WHST/11-12/**)

**Text Types and Purposes:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.1

Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

**Production and Distribution of Writing:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

**G. English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grade 8 (http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/8/**)

**Comprehension and Collaboration:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.2

Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.8.4

Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

H. English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grades 9-10 (http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/9-10/)

Comprehension and Collaboration:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and task.

I. English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grades 11-12 (http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/11-12/)

**Comprehension and Collaboration:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:**

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and a range of formal and informal tasks.

**J. Mathematics Standards » Measurement & Data » High School Probability & Statistics** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/MD/**)

**Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.7

Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).

**K. Mathematics Standards » Geometry » Grades 6-8** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/G/**)

**Grade 6: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.G.A.1

Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.G.A.3

Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.G.A.4

Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

**Grade 7: Draw construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.G.A.1

Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.G.A.2

Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.

**Grade 7: Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.G.B.6

Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms.

**Grade 8: Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.G.A.3

Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.

**Grade 8: Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.G.C.9

Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

**L. Mathematics Standards » Ratios & Proportional Relationships » Grades 6-7** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/RP/**)

**Grade 6: Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.1

Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.”

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.3

Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams or equations.

**Grade 7: Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2

Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.3

Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.

**M. Mathematics Standards » Expressions & Equations » Grades 6-7** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/EE/**)

**Grade 6: Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.C.9

Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

**Grade 7: Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.3

Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4

Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

**N. Mathematics Standards » Functions » Grade 8** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/F/**)

**Grade 8: Use functions to model relationships between quantities.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5

Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

**O. Mathematics Standards » Statistics & Probability » Grades 6-8** (**http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/SP/**)

**Grade 6: Develop understanding of statistical variability.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.1

Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages.

**Grade 6: Summarize and describe distributions.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.4

Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.5

Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.5.A

Reporting the number of observations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.5.B

Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.

**Grade 8: Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.**

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.SP.A.4

Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?